Among the American wounded was the Marquis de Lafayette. Elements of Maxwell's continental light infantry skirmished with the British vanguard (primarily the Queen's Rangers – a battalion of loyalists). After a skirmish at Cooch's Bridge south of Newark, the British troops moved north and Washington abandoned a defensive encampment along the Red Clay Creek near Newport, Delaware, to deploy against the British at Chadds Ford. At this point Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen attacked Chadds Ford and crumpled the American left wing. The Battle of Brandywine, or the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was a battle between the American army of Major General George Washington and the army of General Sir William Howe, comprising of British-Hessian army men. In the end, the British troops occupied the battlefield, but they had not destroyed Washington’s army nor cut it off from the capital at Philadelphia. The Hessian general rallied the Tories and ordered Ferguson's riflemen to take position behind a house on his right. The battle occurred in and around Chadds Ford, and lasted 11 hours - longer than any other battle during the American War for Independence (AWI). The forces had skirmished earlier as General George Washington avoided committing his retrained but untested Continental Army. Around 6 p.m., Washington and Greene arrived with reinforcements to try to hold off the British, who now occupied Meeting House Hill. Battle of Brandywine, (September 11, 1777), in the American Revolution, engagement near Philadelphia in which the British defeated the Americans but left the Revolutionary army intact. British and American forces maneuvered around each other for the next several days with only a few encounters such as the Battle of Paoli on the night of September 20–21. On the afternoon of this day in 1777, General Sir William Howe and General Charles Cornwallis launch a full-scale British attack on General George Washington and the Patriot outpost at Brandywine Creek near Chadds Ford, in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, on the road linking Baltimore and Philadelphia. , The official British casualty list detailed 587 casualties: 93 killed (eight officers, seven sergeants and 78 rank and file); 488 wounded (49 officers, 40 sergeants, four drummers and 395 rank and file); and six rank and file missing unaccounted for. From the Meetinghouse grounds, the battle continued for three miles to the Brandywine Creek, at Chadds Ford. During the same period, from January to May, Sir William Howe was occupying winter quarters in New York City, leaving major … The main British column under General Cornwallis (and accompanied by General Howe) set out from Kennett Square at 5:00 a.m.. Local loyalist sources had provided Howe with knowledge of two unguarded fords, above the forks of the Brandywine. A bayonet charge by the British grenadier battalions, in the center, similarly forced Stirling to retreat. Evening was approaching and, in spite of the early start Cornwallis had made in the flanking maneuver, most of the American army was able to escape. As a result, Washington was not able to accurately gauge the strength of the opposing forces. The British forces routed the Continental Army and forced them to withdraw, first, to the City of Chester, Pennsylvania, and then northeast toward Philadelphia. The defeated Americans retreated to Chester where most of them arrived at midnight, with stragglers arriving until morning. Brandywine was one of the biggest battles of the Revolution, involving some 30,000 combatants, right up there with the Battle of Brooklyn (1776), which resembled Brandywine in so many ways, and the Battle of Monmouth (1778). 221–223. Eventually the British pushed the Americans back but not before suffering heavy losses. General Washington offered battle with his army posted behind Brandywine Creek, off the Christina River. The British Army defeated the American Army and forced them to withdraw toward the American capital of Philadelphia. His forces were able to reconnoiter the British landing from Iron Hill near Newark, Delaware, about 9 miles (14 km) to the northeast. Having received intelligence from Colonel Bland's scouts, Washington ordered Sullivan to take overall command of Stirling and Stephen's divisions (in addition to his own) and quickly march north to meet the British flank attack. Washington had committed a serious error in leaving his right flank wide open and could have brought about his army's annihilation had it not been for Sullivan, Stirling and Stephen's divisions, which bought them time. Evening was approaching and, in spite of the early start Cornwallis had made in the flanking maneuver, most of the American army was able to escape. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. The historic park is owned and operated by the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, on 52 acres (210,000 m2), near Chadds Ford, Delaware County, part of the site of the Battle of Brandywine. Returning to France in February 1779, he worked with American emissaries Benjamin Franklin and John…. The Battle of Brandywine was the largest single day engagement of the American Revolution where nearly 30,000 soldiers (not including civilians, teamsters, servants, and other members of the army) squared off on a ten square mile area of roughly 35,000 acres. The campaign began when British forces, led by General Sir William Howe departed New York City and sailed up the Chesapeake Bay. On 26 September 1777, British forces marched into Philadelphia unopposed. It … On September 11, 1777, General George Washington was determined to prevent the British from capturing the American seat of government, Philadelphia. The nearest thing to a hard figure from the American side was by Major General Nathanael Greene, who estimated that Washington's army had lost between 1,200 and 1,300 men. Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 198th Signal Battalion. Why Did George Washington Join the Revolution? Brandywine also was an important step in … Around 6 p.m., Washington and Greene arrived with reinforcements to try to hold off the British, who now occupied Meeting House Hill. Polish General Casimir Pulaski defended Washington's rear assisting in his escape. 227–229. George Washington's army retreated, due to injuries and bad weather conditions. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981, pp. On October 11th 1777. 1777 battle of the American Revolutionary War, Washington and Greene arrive near Dilworth, Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse and School. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The British Brigade of Guards caught de Borre by surprise on the American left, before de Borre had time to fully form, and immediately sent them in to disarray, causing the entire division to rout. The Battle of Saragtoga The Battle of Saratoga took place in Saratoga on the Hudson River in New York state. Engagement between Bonhomme Richard and Serapis. Updates? At the Battle of Brandywine on September 11, 1777 a colonial American army led by General George Washington fought a British-Hessian army commanded by General William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe. While part of his army demonstrated in front of Chadds Ford, Howe took the bulk of his troops on a long march that crossed the Brandywine far beyond Washington's right flank. In his report to the Continental Congress detailing the battle, Washington stated: "despite the day's misfortune, I am pleased to announce that most of my men are in good spirits and still have the courage to fight the enemy another day.". The forces met near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania, as Howe moved to take Philadelphia, then the American capital. Howe’s campaign to capture Philadelphia, the American capital, began in mid-1777. At 5:30 a.m. the British and Hessian troops began marching east along the "Great Road" (now Route 1) from Kennett Square, advancing on the American troops positioned where the road crossed Brandywine Creek. If General Greene's estimate of the total American loss was accurate, then they had between 1,160 and 1,260 killed, wounded or deserted during the battle. As Washington's army streamed away in retreat, he brought up elements of General Nathanael Greene's division which held off Howe's column long enough for his army to escape to the northeast.  General Howe's report to the British colonial secretary, Lord George Germain, said that the Americans, "had about 300 men killed, 600 wounded, and near 400 made prisoners".. Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 111th Infantry. Battle of Brandywine The foggy afternoon of September 11, 1777 marked a battle that would end the long period of frustration for the British army in North America. With Howe’s attack from the north and Knyphausen’s push through the middle at Chadd, the Americans were soon in full retreat. The retreating force was aided by Lafayette, who was shot in the leg during this first battle for him of the war but who gallantly fought on and rallied the troops, facilitating an orderly retreat for Washington’s men. 343–345. His own division he left under the command of Preudhomme de Borre, with orders to shift to the right in order to link up with Stirling and Stephen's divisions (from left to right the divisions were arranged as Sullivan, Stirling, Stephen). Washington employed General John Armstrong, commanding about 1,000 Pennsylvania militia, to cover Pyle's Ford, 5.8 miles south of Chadds Ford, which was covered by Major Generals Anthony Wayne's and Nathanael Greene's divisions. Washington conferred with Greene and Knox, the latter of whom was head of artillery, in the yard of the William Brinton house.  Only 40 of the British Army's casualties were Hessians. Dec 19, 1777. Stone Wall at Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse. The British captured it two weeks later on September 26, resulting the city falling under British control for nine months, until June of 1778. Howe, however—aided by local Loyalist scouts—had been tipped off about unguarded fords unbeknownst to Washington further north of Wistar, where Howe’s troops could cross without incident and proceed to march south for a surprise attack on Washington’s right flank. Raymond K. Bluhm Jr. is a retired U.S. Army Colonel and military historian, author, and former professor of American History. Washington drew up his troops in a defensive position behind Brandywine Creek. The Battle of Brandywine was fought between the American army and the British army on September 11, 1777 near Chadds Ford. Let us know. Howe was slow to attack, which bought time for the Americans to position some of their men on high ground near Birmingham Meetinghouse, about a mile (1.6 km) north of Chadds Ford. Because of the delay disembarking from the ships, Howe did not set up a typical camp but quickly moved forward with the troops. This is when the Battle of Brandywine took place. The first shots of the battle took place about 4 miles west of Chadds Ford, at Welch's Tavern. Nation Makers by Howard Pyle depicts the Battle of Brandywine. Washington received contradictory reports about the British troop movements and continued to believe that the main force was moving to attack at Chadds Ford. This superior scouting and reconnaissance would be Washington’s downfall at Brandywine.  Howe, who had better information about the area than Washington, had no intention of mounting a full-scale frontal attack against the prepared American defenses. The Battle of Brandywine was fought September 11, 1777, during the American Revolution (1775-1783). The player plays as the British, and the A.I. Mass grave containing the remains of soldiers from both armies at Birmingham Friends Burial Grounds. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American Continental Army of General George Washington and the British Army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777, as part of the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783). The British appeared on the Americans' right flank at around 2 p.m. and took a much-needed rest on Osbourne's Hill, a commanding position north of the Continental army. Sullivan, Stephen, and Stirling attempted to reposition their divisions to meet the surprise attack, but underestimated the swiftness of Howe's attack, which routed Stephen and Stirling's units. One of the Quakers later wrote, "While there was much noise and confusion without, all was quiet and peaceful within.". Losing the capital was a major blow to the Americans, foreshadowing the difficult winter to come for Washington at Valley Forge, but the Continental Army and the revolution had survived. Washington had committed a serious error in leaving his right flank wide open and could have brought about his army's annihilation had it not been for Sullivan, Stirling and Stephen's divisions, which bought them time. As they were forming their lines north of Dilworth, Howe launched his attack. Taking up positions along Brandywine Creek, Washington mistakenly believed that his army blocked all fords across the Brandywine. Posted on September 3, 2016 by MSW. Questions or concerns? five times did the Enemy drive our Troops from the Hill & as often was it Regained & the Summit often Disputed almost muzzle to muzzle." Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Darkness brought the British pursuit to a standstill, which then allowed Weedon's force to retreat. About 6,800 men under the command of Wilhelm von Knyphausen advanced to meet Washington's troops at Chadds Ford. Repairs were made at the Van Leer Furnace and military supplies were also moved to Reading, Pennsylvania. The Battle of Brandywine Creek took place in Pennslyvannia wes of Philidelphia. Further upstream was a brigade under Colonel Moses Hazen covering Buffington's Ford and Wistar's Ford. Losses: American, 200–300 dead, 500-600 wounded, 400 captured; British and German, 80–90 dead, 488 wounded, 6 missing. This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. Intense fighting followed between the British and the well-entrenched Americans. The Battle of Brandywine Creek is a historical battle in Empire: Total War. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Major General John Sullivan's division extended northward along the Brandywine's east banks, covering the high ground north of Chadds Ford along with Major General Adam Stephen's division and Major General Lord Stirling's divisions. Belatedly, three divisions were shifted to block the British flanking force at Birmingham Friends Meetinghouse and School, a Quaker meeting house. The Battle of the Brandywine on September 11, 1777, marked the apparent end of a long period of frustration for the British in North America.  This would suggest that of the "near 400" prisoners reported by Howe, only about 50 had surrendered unwounded. An estimated 29,000 British and American troops gathered at the fledgling town populated mostly by peaceful Quakers. . It was determined that Knox would deploy artillery to slow the British advance. As the British lines advanced, the Hessian Jaegers threatened to flank the American right forcing Stephen and Stirling to shift right. The Brandywine River winds from Southeastern Pennsylvania into Delaware carving out the beautiful rolling hills and valleys that are the landmarks of the Brandywine Valley. Reproduced in Sawicki 1982, pp. , The battlefield today, south of Meeting House Hill, View from the top of Osborne's Hill looking southeast toward the American positions, Monument to Lafayette and Pulaski at Birmingham Cemetery. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The Battle of Brandywine. Eight Army National Guard units (103rd Eng Bn, A/1-104th Cav, 109th FA, 111th Inf, 113th Inf, 116th Inf, 1–175th Inf and 198th Sig Bn) and one active Regular Army Field Artillery battalion (1–5th FA) are derived from American units that participated in the Battle of Brandywine. September 11, 1777 began with heavy fog along the Brandywine River, providing cover for the British troops. On September 11, 1777, the hamlet of Chadds Ford played host to one of the largest and deadliest battles of the American Revolutionary War, today called the Battle of Brandywine. The Battle of Brandywine occurred on Thursday, September 11, 1777. Further north, Greene sent Brigadier General George Weedon's troops to cover the road just outside the town of Dilworth to hold off the British long enough for the rest of the Continental Army to retreat. No casualty return for the American army at Brandywine survives and no figures, official or otherwise, were ever released. When darkness fell, Greene's division finally began the march to Chester along with the rest of the army. The Battle of the Brandywine was a critical military encounter of the American Revolution. Around 2 pm, the main British force appeared on the American right flank. History Map of the American Revolution: the Battle of the Brandywine - September 11, 1777; illustrating Battle positions and movements. The Battle of Brandywine was fought on September 11, 1777, as part of the Philadelphia campaign. https://www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-the-Brandywine, Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen. The battle was fought at mid-morning around the meeting house while the pacifist Quakers continued to hold their midweek service. Knyphausen’s advance guard did attack at Chadds Ford as Washington had planned, arriving early in the morning on 11 September. Due to poor scouting, the Americans did not detect Howe's column until it reached a position in rear of their right flank. Upon hearing the attack of Cornwallis's column, Knyphausen launched an attack against the weakened American center across Chadds Ford, breaking through the divisions commanded by Wayne and William Maxwell and forcing them to retreat and leave behind most of their cannons. Brandywine Battlefield Historic Site is a National Historical Landmark. But the main British column was now concurrently and secretly heading south on Washington’s right flight, an exhausting nine-hour march for the British. Battle of Brandywine, (September 11, 1777), in the American Revolution, engagement near Philadelphia in which the British defeated the Americans but left the Revolutionary army intact. The British continued to advance and encountered a greater force of continentals behind the stone walls on the Old Kennett Meetinghouse grounds. It was a long battle filled with many tactical … Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 109th Field Artillery. In a day long battle, the British vanquished the American forces. On September 11th, Howe's forces attacked the American troops blocking his way to Philadelphia at Brandywine. The British general Sir William Howe was lured to Philadelphia in the belief that its large Tory element would rise up when joined by a British army and thus virtually remove Pennsylvania from the war. Although Howe had defeated the American army, his lack of cavalry prevented its total destruction. Fighting was ferocious in places, but the Americans were soon in full retreat, pulling back to nearby Chester and leaving behind strategic cannons. The British general Sir William Howe was lured to Philadelphia in the belief that its large Tory element would rise up when joined by a British army and thus virtually remove Pennsylvania from the war. The Continental Congress abandoned Philadelphia, moving first to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for one day and then to York, Pennsylvania. The Marquis de Lafayette had only just arrived, joining Stirling's division, when he received a wound while trying to rally the retreating troops.  On September 14, about 350 wounded Americans were taken from the British camp at Dilworth to a newly established hospital at Wilmington, Delaware. Greene's reinforcements, combined with the remnants of Sullivan's, Stephen's, and Stirling's divisions, formed south of Dilworth and stopped the pursuing British for nearly an hour, letting the rest of the army retreat. In the meantime, more information about the article and the author can be found by clicking on the author’s name. September 11 began with a heavy fog, which provided cover for the British troops. The British grouped forces at nearby Kennett Square. So the battle of Brandywine ended in victory for the British, that they were able to drive George Washington and his troops to Philadelphia.  Another British officer wrote that, "The Enemy had 502 dead in the field". General Howe was intent on capturing Philadelphia in 1777. From January to May 1777, following his victories at Trenton and Princeton, Washington occupied a defensive base at Morristown, sometimes raiding British posts in New Jersey and New York. Reproduced in Sawicki 1981. pp. In late August 1777, after a distressing 34-day journey from Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey, a Royal Navy fleet of more than 260 ships carrying some 17,000 British troops under the command of British General Sir William Howe landed at the head of the Elk River, on the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay near present-day Elkton, Maryland (then known as Head of Elk), approximately 40–50 miles (60–80 km) southwest of Philadelphia. But the countermeasure was too little, too late. The Americans, however, were able to extract their army. Unloading the ships proved to be a logistical problem because the narrow river neck was shallow and muddy. The Jagers attacked from the right side of the photograph, while the light infantry attacked from the current-day tree line, at the left and center. The Battle of Brandywine, also known as the Battle of Brandywine Creek, was fought between the American army of General George Washington and the British army of General Sir William Howe on September 11, 1777. For Lieutenant-General Sir William Howe, commander of the British forces in North America, it was the first chance he had to come fully to grips with General George Washington's army since the British victory of Long Island in August 1776. General George Washington had placed the American forces, about 20,300-strong, between Head of Elk and Philadelphia. Forward defenses of the American right-wing. Initially, Stephen's and Stirling's divisions held firm, aided by a battery of artillery on a knoll between their divisions. The engagement occurred near Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania … Corrections? Armies - American Forces was commanded by Gen. George Washington and consisted of about 14,500 Soldiers. , Most accounts of the American loss were from the British. One initial report by a British officer recorded American casualties at over 200 killed, around 750 wounded, and 400 prisoners were taken, many of them wounded.